RISK & NEED QUADRANT MODEL
The Risk & Need Quadrant Model, developed by Marlowe (2009), crosses high or low levels of risk with high or low levels of need. This creates four quadrants for selecting effective correctional dispositions and behavioral care plans. Recommendations include some combination of the following four basic interventions:
Supervision may include frequent sessions with a probation officer or other criminal justice professional, probation field visits to a participant’s home or place of employment, regular court appearances, periodic drug and alcohol testing, or swift and certain rewards for achievements and sanctions for infractions.
Treatment typically includes substance use disorder treatment, mental health treatment, or other social services delivered by a licensed or certified clinical professional.
Prosocial habilitation refers to interventions that encourage participants to think before they act, and that teach strategies for resolving interpersonal conflicts and other problems without illegal activity or substance use.
Adaptive habilitation refers to services that address employment, education, and other issues found in criminal justice populations. Examples include vocational rehabilitation, literacy education, life-skills training, and parenting classes.
High Risk and High Need
(upper left quadrant)
These individuals typically require a combination of all four interventions. Emphasis should be placed first on stabilizing the case through the provision of intensive supervision and treatment, followed by prosocial rehabilitation and finally by adaptive rehabilitation.
Low Risk and High Need
(upper right quadrant)
These individuals typically require an emphasis on treatment and adaptive rehabilitation, and may or may not require prosocial habilitation services (indicated by parentheses in the matrix).
High Risk and Low Need
(lower left quadrant)
These individuals typically require intensive supervision and prosocial habilitation, but are not likely to require substance use, mental health, or other treatment, and may or may not require adaptive habilitation.
Low Risk and Low Need
(lower right quadrant)
These individuals typically do not require any of these services. They will often be best suited for low-intensity prevention services and should ideally be diverted from further contact with the justice system at the earliest suitable stage in the proceedings.